Vorner's random stuff

Corona: If you want to get async out out of your way

For some time now I develop a Rust library for asynchronous programming with coroutines, called Corona (note there’s a version 0.4.0-pre.1, but Crates prefer the „stable“ 0.3.1). I believe it is starting to be useful, so I wrote this description to show what it is good for and how it fits into the big picture of Rust.

There’ll be some more changes, though, at least because Tokio just released a new version (and Futures plan to do so soon), so Corona will have to adapt.

Motivation and goals

Corona is here to help with asynchronous programming. Asynchronous programming (eg. handling many tasks at once, most of them waiting for something external to happen) is already possible with Rust ‒ the biggest player in there is probably Tokio.

The problem is, asynchronous programming is hard. You have to consider interactions between all the tasks that may be happening at the same time. You need to cope with something that you wait for not happening (eg. the request getting lost). The Futures are quite a good abstraction, but the code written with them often feels convoluted and unnatural, making the asynchronous programming even harder (it’s smaller mental barrier if you’ve already heard the name Monad).

This is where Corona comes in. It provides stack-full coroutines that can switch to other coroutines when waiting on something, making the code feel much more linear and natural.

What Corona tries to do:

What Corona does not try to do:

In other words, Corona tries to aim at the use case where you need to cope with some asynchronous communication, but it is not the bottleneck of your application. It helps get it out of the way with as little effort as possible and concentrate at the interesting parts of your code.

A case study

Let’s look at some examples where Corona will help you and some where it’ll just make your problem even harder.

The good case

Let’s say you’re writing a service that answers some queries. The service will have only few hundreds or thousands of connected clients at a time. The query is potentially large and needs to be parsed on the fly and each query needs some more data to fetch and then a computation to be performed. The expensive part is the computation, not the IO.

It is not a problem to have few thousands little stacks on today’s server. The fact the parsing can happen only once, on the fly, as the data come in, is a plus. After the query arrives, the fetching is done with a library returning futures (let’s say Hyper). You join the fetching futures together (notion better expressed by the future combinators than procedural code) and wait on them (in a procedural manner). In another step, the computation is submitted to a background thread pool (futures-cpupool) and the coroutine waits for the completion. When it is done, it can proceed to send the answer back.

This avoids bunch of and_then calls, complicated error handling and bunch of retries on the parsing of the data, without incurring large performance penalties. The performance lies in the expensive computations, which can happen in parallel in the thread pool.

The bad case

A DNS resolver. Such a thing needs hundreds of thousands concurrent tasks. And most of its job is asynchronous IO. Having a stack (which takes at least few kilobytes of memory) for each is probably little bit too much. Furthermore, you’ll want to tune the IO code and having stack-full coroutines in your way won’t help much with that.

That means you’ll have to pay the price for less convenient library, but that’s OK as the IO here is the bread and butter of the application and you want a very fine control of it.

Comparison with others

Of course, Corona isn’t the only library dealing with asynchronous code. So, let’s have a look at few of the others and highlight the differences, so you know which one to choose.

Futures and Tokio

These are actually not competing with Corona. Corona builds on top of them, it is their extension. You’ll meet them when you use Corona, because it doesn’t even try to hide them.

However, comparing to purely futures-based code, Corona allows writing code in more procedural and sequential way. It also allows „sneaking“ asynchronous code through the stack (into callbacks), while all the stack above a future need to be made of futures as well.

On the other hand, Corona takes more memory because of the stacks it allocates. And some flows are better expressed as the combinators than procedurally (try expressing you want to process at most n tasks in parallel until everything is handled ‒ there’s a combinator for that).


These are very similar in the async-await notation and the way they allow juggling coroutines and writing procedural-looking code. There are some major differences, though:


May is a port of Go’s semantics into Rust. It does stack-full coroutines, like Corona. However, there are major differences:


Enough talking. Let’s show a bit of an example. Some of the classical examples are available in the repository. Here we have just a small snippet:

// This brings few types into scope. But it also enriches all the futures and
// streams and sinks with additional methods.
use corona::prelude::*;
// This thing turns an async stream to sync one, with suspending the coroutine
// when waiting.
use corona::io::BlockingWrapper;
use tokio_core::net::TcpStream;
// Yes, this is still from the old tokio-core, we'll migrate soon.
use tokio_core::reactor::Core;

let (mut sender, receiver) = futures::unsync::mpsc::channel(10);
let mut core = Core::new()?;
let handle = core.handle();

let completed = Coroutine::with_defaults(handle.clone(), move || -> Result<(), Error> {
    // The connect returns a future.
    let stream = TcpStream::connect("".parse()?, &handle)
        // Will suspend the coroutine until it connects and return a resulting stream

    let pseudosync_stream = BlockingWrapper::new(stream);
    // The StreamDeserializer knows nothing about async… but it doesn't matter.
    // The wrapper will just suspend the coroutine if it needs more data and the
    // parser will happily wait on the suspended stack, with all its internal
    // state.
    let bunch_of_jsons = serde_json::StreamDeserializer::new(pseudosync_stream);
    for json in bunch_of_jsons {
        // Handle parse errors. See, we can use ? in async code!
        let json = json?;
	// This just suspends the coroutine while the sink is full.
	// Note: this does *not* consume the sender while the send is in
	// progress, like the normal send does. You don't have to extract it
	// from the result again and assign it back to the variable.

// We could start another coroutine to handle the jsons here. Or bunch of other
// coroutines to do something completely different.

// We can use the coroutine as a future and wait for it.
// It will resolve to the result of the closure.
match core.run(completed) {
    Ok(()) => println!("Oh, good!"),
    Err(e) => println!("Oh no :-(: {}", e),

The future

So, what happens with the library now? Tokio announced new version few days ago, while Futures will do so in a short time. I’ll let them settle and adapt the code to the new API. I also plan to add scoped spawning support. Both of these might or might not introduce breaking changes ‒ but not something substantial, just added parameter here, or moving a method from a type to a new trait.

I have some planned functionality, but I’m pretty sure that one will be added without any breakage. So that can go in as I implement it (or as someone else helps me implement ‒ there’s a TODO file in the repository, if you want to help or want some functionality sooner).

But the long-term future is up to you, the user. My point of view of the API is biased, as I’m the author. I want to hear from other people, what is easy to use, what needs improvements. Pull requests are also welcome.